The guideways of CNC machine tools are presented in the form of nodes that perform the function of moving objects. Through their use, these objects move along a given trajectory, while maintaining the necessary accuracy. The production of such components is carried out using industrial, mechanical and structural aluminum profiles. A complete linear motion system consists of a combination of gears and guides. The latter use shafts, bushings and bearings.

Functions of CNC machine tool guideways
CNC machine tool guideways are capable of performing several functions simultaneously. The presence of these elements ensures the smooth operation of the entire system.

Function number one. Support for machine components
Linear guideways carry the entire transport elements. They must provide linear motion with minimal friction. In addition, the guideways can serve as the main structural element and provide maximum stability of the machine.

Function number two. Ensuring precise linear motion
These components must also ensure that the motion achieves the required accuracy. The guideways used should not contain any clearances, as this can lead to a reduction in machining quality and disrupt the overall geometry of the product.

Function 3. Ability to withstand secondary loads
In addition, guideways can withstand transverse and torsional forces, which are subsequently transmitted to the bed. In addition, they sense and transmit the torque forces generated during milling operations.

Classification of guides
The operating characteristics of guideways for CNC machine tools are determined by the design of such parts. Guideways can be molded or placed on cylindrical support members.

Profile guides
This product variant is used where maximum precision is required. Such guides are mounted directly on the machine tool. The presence of special raceways allows you to evenly distribute the load on the carriage. Guides of this type are characterized by the following features:

High accuracy;.
High load capacity;
Low clearance.
The disadvantage is the complexity of the installation and the high requirements for the roughness of the parts.

Axis on support
Supported linear axes are used to support the entire length of the guideway. Thus, the possibility of deflection under the influence of high mechanical loads is eliminated. Cylindrical guideways are mounted on the machine. They may react differently to different loads. The main disadvantages of such guideways are high clearance and low operating potential.

Polished shafts
This type of guideway is characterized by easy mounting on the machine and high mechanical strength. Polished shafts are manufactured from high-alloy steel using the induction method. This method guarantees good wear resistance and a long term service potential even under intensive use. In the final stage of production, the polished shafts are ground to ensure the smoothest possible surface. It should be noted that long shafts may sag, which complicates their operation.

Accuracy grades
The guideways of CNC machines can also have different accuracy grades. This is the name of the characteristic that determines the permissible values of the main and additional errors that affect accuracy. Components labeled C have a standard accuracy class. This means that the permissible deviation in width and height does not exceed 0.1.

The highest accuracy class is the ultra-precision class, which is indicated by the letters UP. There are also high precision (H), precision (P) and super precision (SP) accuracy classes. The difference between these designations is the permissible deviation and the average deviation of the width and height.