Many industries today use milling and engraving machines. Almost every woodworking company, large furniture factory or small private furniture workshop is necessarily equipped with a CNC milling center.

When choosing a machine, production managers understand that it is quite difficult to choose and buy one. Here it is necessary to consider many nuances that will help to avoid misunderstandings and problems when operating the equipment.

If you decide to buy a certain model of milling machine, you should set up further tasks for it, because after installing the equipment, most of the options will be difficult and sometimes impossible to configure.

If you already know what design you need, then you also need to choose the right components, especially the support and guide groups of the equipment. The quality of the manufactured product is directly dependent on the accuracy of the machine and its geometric integrity.

The type of guides is determined at the design stage of the machine and is shown in the technical documentation that comes with the machine. All types of such devices are mounted on the stationary units of the machine and the moving parts move along them.

If the machine is equipped with profile rails as guide rails, their use is facilitated by the fact that the oil seals, bearings, boots and nipples located in the structure can be lubricated using the connected lubrication system.

In addition, the profile guideways mounted on the frame have special tracks in which the rolling elements are located. The load on the carriage, which is moved on the guideway by the moving elements of the machine, is evenly distributed along the raceway, thus establishing a curved contact profile between the ball and the guideway.

By choosing milling and engraving machines with profile guideways, you get machines with no or low backlash. This ensures high machining accuracy, increased load capacity and high wear resistance of the machine.

Some users note that the cost of such machines is quite high. This is due to the increased quality of such products, which positively affects the quality of the final product.

It is this type of guideways that are used to produce high-quality milling machines capable of working in extreme conditions.

Manufacturers of milling and engraving machines also produce designs with polished shafts as guideways. This type of component is relatively inexpensive, so models of such machines become more readily available due to their low cost. The main condition for the durability and strength of the shaft is the material used in its manufacture. Preferably high-alloy steel. The product must undergo a process of surface induction hardening and special grinding.

Under these conditions, polished shafts have a perfectly smooth surface, ensuring that they move with a minimum of friction. Correctly performed hardening ensures the durability of the structure in operation and a high resistance to wear.

This type of guide is more reliable and easier to use. However, an increase in the load on the equipment leads to heating of the surface during friction, which means loss and reduction of equipment resources.

Grinding axes are very easy to install. To connect them, you need a flat surface to connect them in two positions. Experts studying the device note this method of fastening as one of its drawbacks. The fragility of the device and the high degree of clearance of the bushings are also noted.

Fastening of portal machines must be rigid with respect to the table surface. When machining materials, the guideway bends along the table surface due to increased loads, and therefore errors may occur.

Circular guideways are used in areas of low motion activity. This is due to the lack of an internal lubrication system, so this operation is performed manually.

Polished axes are used on machines with a length of about 1 meter. This is due to the possibility of sagging of the structure, which will certainly have a negative impact on the final production result. When modeling the loads on the shafts, it is also necessary to observe the ratio of the length of the constituent units to their diameter. This compliance provides a more precise linear movement.

In some models, the moving pallets are mounted on cylindrical guide rails. This type of guide rail ensures that the bracket moves without deflection. This feature is associated with the use of special fasteners that secure the rails to the frame. The ball bushings are mounted in aluminum cylinders and are held in place by spring rings. Due to the use of aluminum, the weight of the guide is quite light. During operation, there are low friction losses, high machining accuracy and smooth movement.

The cylindrical guideway is placed on the frame along its entire length. As a result, there is no sagging during use and the load capacity increases. However, it should be noted that a carriage mounted on such a guideway perceives loads in different directions differently. This is due to the design of ball bushings, which are closed along the contour. Practice shows that sometimes devices mounted on cylindrical rails do not show high accuracy.

The design of movable machine components mounted on cylindrical guideways must be positioned with high precision and ensure the required quality. This type of guideway can only fulfill these requirements under light loads and therefore has a low load capacity. For this reason, cylindrical guideway equipment is used when designing more simplified milling machines, which are installed in workshops and industries with small product volumes.